14 Groundbreaking Female Science Fiction and Fantasy Authors

Women did more than break their way into science fiction and fantasy—they helped define it.

mary shelley, andre norton, octavia butler, madeleine l'engel

In the 21st century, women dominating the field of science fiction and fantasy novels is par for the course—the overwhelming success of authors like J.K. Rowling, Suzanne Collins and Veronica Roth make it seem as though the genre has always welcomed women with open arms. Yet despite the fact that science fiction was largely shaped by female authors (see: Mary Shelley), there’s still a stigma about books written by women not being taken seriously, or not appealing to men—hence why Rowling’s publisher suggested she use her initials, instead of her first name.

Perhaps now that three women top the best seller fantasy and science fiction lists, publishers can fully realize how ridiculous that request was. After all, before these superstar authors came into their own, generations of groundbreaking female science fiction and fantasy authors paved the way. Just take a look at the 15 women listed below—they’re a small sampling of the female science fiction and fantasy authors who helped define the genre.

Related: In 2022, the Carol Shields Prize Will Award Female Novelists 

Mary Shelley



By Mary Shelley

Challenged by the romantic poet Lord Byron to write a ghost story while on holiday at Lake Geneva in Switzerland in 1816, Mary Shelley conceived the tale that would become not only the first published science fiction novel written by a woman, but also the novel that birthed the genre. Frankenstein; or The Modern Prometheus has maintained an iconic status as classic literature, cemented in the public consciousness whether or not one has read the book.

The dangers of science, the moral implications of desecrating human remains, and the hubris of man playing God remain dilemmas debated about nearly two centuries after the novel’s original publication.

Related: 5 Mary Shelley Books That Aren't Frankenstein

Andre Norton



By Andre Norton

The Grande Dame of science fiction and fantasy, Andre Alice Norton wrote tales of young resourceful individuals, respectful portrayals of tribal and feudal communities, and of the bond between humans and animals, as in Catseye. While thought of primarily as a “juvenile” writer during her lifetime (inspiring the Andre Norton Award, given annually by the Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America to honor the best Young Adult SF&F novel of the year), Norton never insulted her youthful readers with childish language. Her fiction equally appealed to adults, who fell in love with the alien worlds she created and the characters who populated them.

Related: 9 Female Authors Who Wrote Under Male Pen Names

Octavia E. Butler



By Octavia E. Butler

In Parable of the Sower and much of her multi-Hugo and Nebula award-winning fiction, Octavia E. Butler addressed both feminist ideals and the African-American experience in relation to the Caucasian, male-dominant environment she was raised in. Her narratives were not merely concerned with the inherent tensions in gender and racial relationships, but with addressing the dehumanization that occurs between those who rule and those who serve.

Related: Octavia Butler Books: The Complete Canon

Ursula K. LeGuin

the left hand of darkness best science fiction books

The Left Hand of Darkness

By Ursula K. LeGuin

A literary legend with numerous awards and honors to her name, LeGuin broke barriers with science fiction that explores the psychological and sociological impact of first contact between humans and non-humans, deliberately echoing history’s culture clashes between Caucasian Europeans and minority ethnicities. Her work, most famously The Left Hand of Darkness, further examines how gender politics and sexual identity issues affect societal interaction, and how masculine and feminine qualities relate to dystopian and utopian worlds.

Related: 9 Essential Ursula K. Le Guin Books

Anne McCaffrey

The White Dragon Anne McCaffrey science fiction fantasy novel

The White Dragon

By Anne McCaffrey

When The White Dragon hit the New York Times bestseller list, Anne McCaffrey became the first science fiction author to achieve such recognition. She also occupies a special place in the pantheon of female genre writers as the first woman to receive both the Hugo and Nebula Awards. Her limitless imagination produced numerous series featuring a family of telepaths, human/starship hybrids, colonists of alien worlds, and genetically engineered dragons among many more characters and settings.

Margaret Atwood

The Handmaid's Tale by Margaret Atwood Gloria Steinem

The Handmaid's Tale

By Margaret Atwood

Despite her insistence that none of her work is classifiable as science fiction, Margaret Atwood won the very first Arthur C. Clarke Award. Her speculative fiction novel The Handmaid’s Tale is somewhat frighteningly prophetic. It posits a future dystopian United States embracing Puritan fanaticism in the wake of a terrorist bombing blamed on Islamic extremists, bringing a satirical yet plausible future to life with humanist sensibility.

Related: 20 Books Like The Handmaid’s Tale

James Tiptree, Jr. (Alice Bradley Sheldon)

Brightness Falls from the Air

Brightness Falls from the Air

By James Tiptree Jr.

Before her true identity was revealed in 1977, James Tiptree, Jr., rose to prominence as a dark visionary with a dizzying and dazzling array of short stories and novels about the human condition, such as Brightness Falls from the Air, that convinced readers her stories came from the mind of a male science fiction author with feminist leanings. Grounding her tales in hard science, her characters remained terrifyingly human, preoccupied with sex, identity, male/female relationships, and death—not only of the body, but of the spirit.

C.L. Moore

Black God's Kiss

Black God's Kiss

By C.L. Moore

Using this simple pseudonym, Catherine Lucille Moore was one of the first female authors whose fiction was published in Weird Tales and Astonishing Science Fiction during the 1930s and 40s. She also created the first female protagonist to be introduced in sword and sorcery fiction: Jirel of Joiry. Predating Red Sonja and Xena, this fierce warrior woman battled against gods and monsters in a series of stories that earned Moore a place alongside legendary fantasy writers Robert E. Howard and Edgar Rice Burroughs.

Related: 12 Engrossing Fantasy Books Like The Lord of the Rings 

Madeleine L'Engle

A Wrinkle in Time fantasy books

A Wrinkle in Time

By Madeleine L'Engle

Honored with both the Newbery Medal and the National Book Award, Madeleine L’Engle’s most famous novels, such as A Wrinkle in Time, are young adult science fantasies featuring female protagonists. Blending Christian religious beliefs with science fictional concepts, her child and teenage characters are ethical and well educated and don’t rely on adults to save the day in the battle of good vs. evil.

Related: 11 Madeleine L’Engle Books You May Have Missed

Nnedi Okorafor

who fears death a fantasy novel by nnedi okorafor

Who Fears Death

By Nnedi Okorafor

Where most popular science fiction takes place in North America or Western Europe, Nnedi Okorafor reminds us that it’s a big world out there with such magical realist stories as Who Fears Death, set in Africa and immersed in that continent’s heritage. With multiple international literary and genre awards and nominations as well as critical acclaim for both her young adult and adult fiction, Okorafor is a strong voice for a culture with its own futuristic outlook that needs to be heard.

Related: The 18 Best Magical Realism Books You Haven't Read 

Malinda Lo

Ash by Malinda Lo, a fantasy book


By Malinda Lo

Championing the diversity that science fiction is supposed to represent, Malinda Lo co-founded the Diversity in YA website, celebrating books featuring people of color, LGBTQ, and disabled characters. Her own young adult fiction—including Ash, her gorgeous retelling of Cinderella—has earned her recognition as a finalist for the William C. Morris YA Debut Award, the Andre Norton Award, and the Mythopoeic Fantasy Award; a three-time finalist for the Lambda Literary Award; and the winner of the 2014 Bisexual Book Awards for Bisexual Teen/Young Adult Fiction.

Related: 12 Must-Read Coming of Age LGBT Novels 

Nalo Hopkinson

Skin Folk nalo hopkinson, a science fiction/fantasy book

Skin Folk

By Nalo Hopkinson

Inspired by the Caribbean folklore and Afro-Caribbean culture she read and experienced as a child, Nalo Hopkinson writes science fiction, fantasy, and horror that respects the history and heritage of her homeland—all of which are featured in Skin Folk, her World Fantasy Award-winning story collection. Within her fantastical worlds she tackles social issues involving race, sex, and class relationships with unflinching honesty. The recipient of several prestigious honors for her fiction, Hopkinson is an associate professor of creative writing and participated as writer-in-residence at Clarion Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers’ Workshop, helping aspirational authors find their voices.

Related: 15 Must-Read Books by Iconic Black Authors

Angélica Gorodischer

Kalpa Imperial Angélica Gorodischer

Kalpa Imperial

By Angélica Gorodischer

Introduced to English readers through Ursula K. LeGuin’s translated edition of Kalpa Imperial, Argentinian author Angélica Gorodischer crafts fables and allegories about tyrannical regimes and power plays between men and women, all told from her unique South American feminist perspective.

Joanna Russ

The Female Man

The Female Man

By Joanna Russ

Born in 1937, Joanna Russ was famous for her strong feminist point of view, something that she channeled to write much of her compelling science fiction work. The Female Man, her 1975 masterpiece that was a Nebula Award finalist, follows four versions of Russ herself in four different worlds. Russ herself expected the book would be perceived as “shrill” and “aggressive,” which it surely was—but it also undeniably redefined the possibilities of how a sci-fi novel could be structured. 

Related: The Enduring Anger of Joanna Russ

Featured image: Mary Shelley, Andre Norton, Octavia E. Butler, Madeleine L'Engle, all courtesy of Wikipedia/Public Domain